Citicoline (CDPC) is a natural metabolite present in all living cells. Citicoline has been used as a medicine since the 1980s and in recent years has been approved by the European Union as a novel food ingredient.
After ingestion, citicoline is decomposed into cytidine and choline and integrated into their normal metabolic pathways. Choline is the precursor of acetylcholine and phospholipids; key neurotransmitters for learning and memory and important components of neuronal membranes and myelin sheaths, respectively. Cytidine in humans is easily converted to uridine, which positively affects synaptic function and supports synaptic membrane formation. Choline deficiency has been found to be associated with memory dysfunction.
Citicoline and memory related experiments:
Subjects: 95 subjects, aged 50 to 85 years old
Experimental design: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
Intervention dose: 500 mg twice daily for 3 months
Experimental results: The average plasma choline concentration of subjects treated with citicoline was significantly higher than that of subjects treated with placebo, and the study also proved that verbal memory function was clearly improved after taking citicoline.
Subjects: 24 elderly non-demented subjects
Experimental design: placebo-controlled crossover
Intervention dose: Oral citicoline (daily dose 500 mg or 1000 mg) over 4 weeks
Experimental results: After 4 weeks of citicoline treatment, 2 of the 5 memory tasks in the experiment (word recall, word recognition, immediate and delayed recall of objects, and object recognition) were improved, namely word recall and delayed object memory.
Subjects: 30 patients diagnosed with moderate to severe leukoaraiosis
Experimental design: Participants were voluntarily assigned to the citicoline group (n=14) and the control group (n=16)
Intervention dose: Patient takes 600 mg of citicoline daily for one year
Results: Data suggest that citicoline attenuates damage to axons and myelin and promotes repair of the corpus callosum in subjects with leukoaraiosis.
Subjects: 100 men and women between the ages of 50 and 85
Experimental Design: Randomly assigned to receive placebo (n=51) or citicoline (n=49)
Intervention dose: Citicoline 500 mg per day for 12 weeks
Experimental results: Compared with those who took placebo, participants who took citicoline showed a significant improvement in episodic memory and overall memory as assessed by the composite memory score, indicating that citicoline has an effect on memory in middle-aged and elderly people. positive effects.
The above data provide mixed and clear evidence that oral citicoline intake positively affects memory function in humans with age-related memory impairment and in the absence of any detectable neurological or psychiatric disease The same is true for the next, showing that it helps reverse early age-related cognitive changes.
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