Sirtuins are a class of evolutionarily highly conserved NAD+-dependent histone deacylases that regulate many key signaling pathways in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and participate in many biological processes, including DNA damage repair, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function and inflammation.
Some articles have shown that the sirtuins proteins related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are mainly SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT6, which are related to their resistance to oxidative stress, inflammation and maintenance of mitochondrial function, and will be the key to preventing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes pharmacological targets.
A report in 2011 pointed out that NMN increased NAD+ levels and insulin levels in type 2 diabetic mice, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered blood sugar, thereby alleviating the symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
An article in 2019 pointed out that NAD+ is also activating SIRT1 and enabling it to resist oxidative stress, inflammation and maintain mitochondrial function to improve glucose and lipid metabolism.
SIRT1 deacetylates NF-κB (p65), leading to decreased expression of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).
SIRT1 deacetylates PGC-1α, increases fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, improves oxidative stress, maintains mitochondrial function, improves glucose and lipid metabolism and exercise tolerance, thereby improving insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
SIRT2 and SIRT1 are the most homologous homologues, which also have the function of deacetylating NF-κB (p65) and inhibiting inflammation.
Second, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) through the production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and reduced glutathione (GSH) Plays a vital role in oxidative stress response.
Sirtuins proteins associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are mainly SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3 and SIRT6, which are related to their resistance to oxidative stress, inflammation and maintenance of mitochondrial function.
Supplementing NMN plays an important role in the treatment of insulin resistance and diabetes. By supplementing NMN to increase NAD+ levels and activate the function of Sirtuins protein, it can treat insulin resistance and diabetes.
*Special note - This article is for informational purposes only and cannot replace a doctor's treatment diagnosis and advice. It should not be regarded as a recommendation or proof of efficacy of the medical products involved. If it involves disease diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, please be sure to go to a professional medical institution to seek professional advice.