PQQ is found in a wide range of common foods including fruits, vegetables, grains and beverages, including plant-based and animal-derived foods, PQQ is a new type of water-soluble vitamins, is an oxidoreductase-based, exists in some micro-organisms,plants and animal tissues, involved in catalytic oxidation of the body reaction.
Pyrroloquinoline Quinone useful for neuronal health, especially for protect- ing against memory loss, has potent free-radical scavenging properties, and as a dietary constituent in many foods is thought to play an essential role in growth, energy, and reproduction in mammals and humans.
Good food sources include kiwi, natto, tofu, green tea, green peppers, whisky, and mother milk. PQQ supplementation at levels higher than what is found in food has positive effects on cognitive function, immune status, antioxidant status, cardiovascular health, and neurological function.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel study was undertaken to see how PQQ could improve memory and other measures of cognitive function in subjects ages 50 to 70 experiencing forgetfulness. Subjects took PQQ alone, PQQ with CoQ10, or placebo for 24 weeks (Koikeda, 2011).
CRP was dramatically lowered in male subjects by almost 90% on average. Plasma mDNA levels were elevated following treatment, indicating increases in mitochondria synthesis. The physiological responses from PQQ were with doses that were on average 30 mg per day or lower.
The effect of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone on cerebral function and anti-stress activity was tested in 71 human subjects over a 12-week period (Nakano, 2009). The double-blind, placebo-controlled study used 20 mg of PQQ and 20 mg of PQQ with 100 mg of CoQ10 in the form of a test food.
The metabolic effects of PQQ were investigated with dosages ranging from 0 to 40 mg per day (Harris, 2013). Decreases in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) of 10–40% on average occurred, though the pretreatment values were considered normal.
They were evaluated using a test assessment of neuropsychological status. The study found that PQQ taken either alone or with CoQ10 had the potential to prevent or even reverse cognitive decline. PQQ improved not only immediate memory but also other higher brain functions such as spatial awareness.
PQQ exerted an improvement in cerebral function, and improvements were found in high-level cerebral functions, including attention and information- discriminating and processing abilities, more so than of memory. PQQ and PQQ with CoQ10 improved high-level cerebral functions in healthy middle-aged and older adults.
Additional signs of deficiency observed in intentionally depleted diets were friable skin, hemorrhages, diverticulitis, a reduction in general fitness, reduced fertility, and defective immunity (Steinberg, 2003).
Based on the observation that animal diets deficient in Pyrroloquinoline Quinone resulted in poor growth, low energy, and unsuccessful reproductive performance, it is thought PQQ has an essential nutrient role in the human body (Stites, 2000).
In animal studies, severely affected mice had functional defects in connective tissues, decreased levels of the collagen-producing enzyme lysyl oxidase, and weakened skin collagen (Kumazawa, 1995). When PQQ is added to an artificial-nutrient-based diet, it improves growth- related variables in young mice.
Research has shown that PQQ facilitates nerve regeneration and enhances nerve growth factor through its function as an ultrapotent antioxidant (Murase, He). By increasing the number and efficiency of mitochondria, PQQ helps brain cells function more efficiently.
The biochemical properties of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone are similar to vitamin C in its oxidation- reductive potential, to riboflavin in its redox effects, and to vitamin B6 as a coenzyme for carbonyl group chemistry.
PQQ is at least 100 times more efficient than ascorbic acid, vitamin K, isoflavonoids, and polyphenols tested in various assays related to oxidation reduction recycling reactions (Stites, 2006).
PQQ can generate redox cycling on a much smaller scale than normal vitamins or well-known antioxidants (Fluckiger, et al., 1993, 1995).
Energy production may be dependent on adequate levels of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone since the number and size of mitochondria are affected by a deficiency. In mice deficient in PQQ, there was a 30–40% reduction in the numbers of mitochondria compared with supplemented mice.
The mitochondrial area in the cell was reduced by 30% in deficient mice compared with supplemented mice (Stites, 1996). Increased synthesis of mitochondria by PQQ is caused by the activation of gene response through a pathway that controls mitochondrial biogenesis (ChowaNADisai, 2009).
The main component of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone disodium salt is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), which is an aromatic tricyclic o-quinone compound. It is known as the king of immunity and is the strongest antioxidant substance currently known in the world.