Adenosine (Ado) is a type of nucleoside. It is an endogenous nucleoside found throughout human tissue cells. Adenosine is present in important substances for life activities such as DNA, RNA, and ATP.
Adenosine metabolism exists widely in various tissues of the human body. It can be metabolized inside and outside cells to produce adenosine. It is composed of ribose and a part of adenine, connected by β-N9-glycosidic bond in the middle. The adenosine-related molecular mechanism is mainly initiated by activating and binding to specific G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs) A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R subtypes on the cell surface.
Adenosine is metabolized extremely quickly outside cells and only exists for a few seconds. Its pathways include acting on corresponding receptors to regulate metabolism, or being degraded by adenosine deaminase (ADA) to generate inosine, or being located on the cell membrane. The nucleoside transporter transports it into the cell. Adenosine can also be directly produced in cells, because intracellular adenosine can generate AMP through the action of adenosine kinase (ADK), or continue to be hydrolyzed by ADA, or transported out of the cell by transporters, thereby playing various roles. Physiological and pharmacological effects.
Adenosine is an important intermediate in the synthesis of important physiologically active substances such as ATP, adenine, adenylate, and vidarabine. Therefore, adenosine has physiological regulatory effects on many systems of the body, including the cardiovascular system and the skin system. , immune system, central nervous system, etc.
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