Citicoline is an intermediate product of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. After cerebral ischemia, citicoline increases the stability of cell membranes, increases glutathione levels, inhibits phospholipid hydrolysis and arachidonic acid production, thereby limiting the production of oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxides. At the same time, citicoline can also increase the blood flow of the brain, promote the energy metabolism of the brain, improve cerebral circulation, and thus play a neuroprotective role.
Citicoline has a certain effect on various models of central nervous system injury, neurodegenerative diseases and facial neuritis, hyperemesis gravidarum, young amblyopia and sudden deafness.
1. Facial neuritis
Citicoline and diacylglycerol are catalyzed by enzymes to generate phosphatidylcholine, which forms a bilayer lipid membrane. When the nerve cell membrane is damaged, exogenous citicoline continuously replenishes raw materials to synthesize phosphatidylcholine, which can repair the nerve cell membrane, prevent peripheral nerve cell apoptosis, promote peripheral nerve regeneration, and then improve the pathological damage of the facial nerve to achieve the purpose of treatment.
2. Hyperemesis gravidarum
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a syndrome of varying degrees of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, with an incidence of about 0.4%, and about 10% of nausea and vomiting are complicated by Wernicck encephalopathy. The excitability of the cerebral cortex is reduced, and the inhibition process of the subcortical center is weakened, resulting in autonomic dysfunction. Citicoline can reduce cerebrovascular resistance and promote the recovery of brain function, which may be related to its effect on the medullary vomiting center and chemoreceptor trigger zone nerve cells.
3. Early curative effect of amblyopia at young age
Citicoline is an endogenous molecule, a specific intermediary for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and a cell membrane structure phospholipid, which can adjust the conversion rate of catecholamine and serotonin, especially stimulate dopamine metabolism in the substantia nigra-striatum dopamine system, thereby increasing the content of norepinephrine and dopamine in the central nervous system. Many aspects of vision are affected by dopamine, including vision, contrast sensitivity, etc. In addition, citicoline can restore the activity of mitochondrial ATPase and Na/K-ATPase, and inhibit the activity of phospholipase A2. By lowering the response threshold of the visual system, the synaptic connections that were not activated before can be activated to restore their functions, thereby improving visual function.
4. Sudden deafness
At present, it is believed that the main cause of sudden deafness is inner ear blood circulation disorder. Vasospasm, edema, hemorrhage, red blood cell agglutination and insufficient inner ear blood supply caused by any reason can cause tissue hypoxia and metabolic disorders, and damage the peripheral receptors of the inner ear. Citicoline Sodium contains neurotrophic substances that promote the recovery of nerve function, stimulates the growth of sympathetic nerve cells, promotes the repair of nerve cells, reduces cerebral vascular resistance, increases cerebral blood flow, and increases blood supply at the lesion.
In short, as a neuroprotective agent, citicoline can quickly repair damaged neuronal cell membranes, increase blood flow in the brain, promote energy metabolism in the brain, improve cerebral circulation, and has a positive effect in the treatment of traumatic brain injury, stroke and other brain and nerve-related diseases. It also shows a positive therapeutic effect in the treatment of facial neuritis, sudden deafness, hyperemesis gravidarum, and amblyopia in young age.