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What is the bioavailability of glutathione?

Author: GSHWORLD Release time: 2024-07-01 Column: Product News


Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in the body and plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of oxidative stress and immune function. Research in recent years has shown that oral GSH supplements can effectively increase GSH levels in different tissues of the human body and may have a positive impact on immune function.

In a study by John P. Richie Jr. et al., a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 54 non-smoking adults found that daily oral GSH supplements (250 or 1000 mg/ days) can significantly increase the GSH levels in blood, red blood cells, plasma, lymphocytes and exfoliated buccal mucosa cells. Especially in the high-dose group, GSH levels increased by an average of 30-35% at 6 months, and increased by 260% in buccal mucosal cells. In addition, the study also observed that GSH supplements can reduce oxidative stress and increase the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells, indicating that GSH supplements can not only effectively increase GSH reserves in the body, but may also enhance immune function.

Glutathione GSH

In another study conducted by TAK Yee Aw et al., by giving GSH orally to mice, it was found that under GSH-sufficient conditions, the GSH concentration in most tissues did not exceed the control value, except for the lungs. However, in mice pretreated with the GSH synthesis inhibitor BSO, which resulted in a significant decrease in tissue GSH concentrations, oral administration of GSH significantly increased GSH concentrations in the kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, small intestine, and skin, but not in liver. This suggests that, under conditions of GSH depletion, oral administration of GSH can increase GSH concentrations in several tissues, which may be particularly important in toxicological and pathological conditions when GSH homeostasis is compromised.

In the study by Vishwanath Venketaraman et al., the application of GSH in HIV-infected patients was further explored. This study found that GSH levels in HIV-infected patients are lower, which is related to the imbalance in the regulation of TH1 and TH2-related cytokines. Through 13 weeks of liposomal GSH (lGSH) supplementation, HIV-infected patients experienced significant increases in levels of the TH1 cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, while reducing free radicals and immunosuppression Levels of the cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. Additionally, lGSH supplementation improved immune cell function in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection.

Taking these three studies together, GSH supplements may be effective in increasing GSH levels in the body, and may also have a positive impact on immune function, helping to restore imbalanced cytokine levels and improve the body's resistance to opportunistic infections. These findings provide a new perspective on the clinical application of GSH supplements, and future research needs to further explore the long-term effects of GSH supplements in different populations and their specific mechanisms of action on immune function.


[1] Richie J P, Nichenametla S, Neidig W, et al. Randomized controlled trial of oral glutathione supplementation on body stores of glutathione[J]. European journal of nutrition, 2015, 54(2): 251-263.

[2] Aw T Y, Wierzbicka G, Jones D P. Oral glutathione increases tissue glutathione in vivo[J]. Chemico-biological interactions, 1991, 80(1): 89-97.

[3] Ly J, Lagman M, Saing T, et al. Liposomal glutathione supplementation restores TH1 cytokine response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV-infected individuals[J]. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research, 2015, 35(11): 875 -887.vvv

*Special note - This article is for informational purposes only and cannot replace a doctor's treatment diagnosis and advice. It should not be regarded as a recommendation or proof of efficacy of the medical products involved. If it involves disease diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, please be sure to go to a professional medical institution to seek professional advice.


Tag: Glutathione , GSH

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