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Functions of PQQ

Author: GSHWORLD Release time: 2023-12-15 Column: Product News


Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) is a compound discovered by scientists that exists in nature. Kumazawa et al. measured the PQQ content in different foods. The results showed that the PQQ content in natto, parsley, green tea, kiwi fruit and other foods was relatively high. On average, about 61ng of PQQ could be detected per gram of natto. It is worth mentioning that Rucker et al. also measured the content of PQQ and its derivatives in human breast milk, which was as high as 140-180ng/ml. PQQ is an important factor necessary for the healthy growth of infants.

Even so, the nanogram-level PQQ content in the diet is only needed to maintain normal life activities. Compared with the safe dosage of 20 mg per day in clinical trials, there is still a gap of millions of orders of magnitude. Therefore, if you want to fully obtain the health benefits of PQQ, taking supplements may be a better solution.


At present, the main functional directions of PQQ supplements include brain health, heart health, immunity improvement, energy supplement, etc.

1. Improve immunity

PQQ can enhance the organism's natural immunity by activating the inflammatory response pathway (NF-kB pathway), antioxidant pathway and heat shock response pathway. During this process, PQQ can increase the number of white blood cells in the human body and increase their activity, thereby enhancing the body's ability to resist external aggressive factors such as viruses and bacteria. PQQ also helps promote the normal functioning of the immune system and enhances the body's ability to respond to external stimuli. Through a series of regulatory effects, PQQ enhances the killing effect of immune cells (such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, macrophages, etc.) on infectious microorganisms, thereby improving immunity [3]. Some studies have shown that PQQ has certain immunomodulatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. A study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry showed that PQQ can significantly improve the immunity of mice. Experimental results showed that compared with mice that were not given PQQ, the number and activity of T cells in mice given PQQ increased, and the degree of inflammatory response was also reduced. Another study published in Cell Metabolism showed that PQQ can enhance macrophage function. Experimental results showed that macrophages given PQQ had an increased phagocytic capacity compared to macrophages not given PQQ, and were also able to secrete more inflammatory mediators.

2. Antioxidant

The process of biological metabolism requires the participation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, when the body suffers various adverse stimuli, highly reactive molecules such as ROS and reactive nitrogen free radicals are excessively produced in the body, causing an imbalance between the oxidation system and the antioxidant system, causing damage to the body. PQQ has strong antioxidant capacity similar to quinone antioxidants. In vitro tests show that its antioxidant capacity is 50-100 times that of vitamin C.

PQQ exerts antioxidant effects: ① PQQ increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), promotes mitochondrial synthesis, and increases citrate synthase and cytochrome C in mitochondria. Oxidase activity reduces oxidative damage caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. ②PQQ combines with copper-zinc superoxide dismutase to change its conformation and enhance its ability to remove ROS [5]. The research results titled Pyrroloquinoline quinone alleviates natural aging-related osteoporosis via a novel MCM3-Keap1-Nrf2 axis-mediated stress response and Fbn1 upregulation were published in Aging Cell. This study revealed the potential mechanism of PQQ’s antioxidant activity and clarified that PQQ The effectiveness and specific mechanism in preventing and treating senile osteoporosis provide experimental basis for PQQ as a food additive for preventing and treating senile osteoporosis.

*Special note - This article is for informational purposes only and cannot replace a doctor's treatment diagnosis and advice. It should not be regarded as a recommendation or proof of efficacy of the medical products involved. If it involves disease diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, please be sure to go to a professional medical institution to seek professional advice.


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