Chloasma mostly occurs in childbearing age and is a common chronic refractory facial pigmentation disease, manifested as symmetrical light or dark brown pigmentation on both sides of the face, and changes with seasons or women's menstrual cycle The change can occur in both men and women, but it is more common in young and middle-aged women. Both estrogen and ultraviolet rays can activate melanocytes and enhance their functions.
A large number of studies have confirmed that topical application and introduction of tranexamic acid and glutathione are good ways to improve chloasma.
The researchers used tranexamic acid combined with reduced glutathione to compare and observe 117 female patients with melasma by microneedle introduction, local injection and combined administration. Microneedle introduction group (group A), local hydrolight injection group (group B), combined administration group (group C).
The area of chloasma and the color of chloasma in the three groups of patients with chloasma after treatment were compared with those in the same period before treatment, P<0.05, the difference was obvious and statistically significant; the treatments of the three groups were all effective. There was no significant difference in the treatment effect of patients with chloasma between groups A and B (P>0.05). There was no significant difference between group C and A and B groups before treatment (P>0.05); there was a significant difference between group C and A and B groups after treatment (P<0.05), the study showed that the combined treatment effect was superior. In microneedle group and local injection group.
Tranexamic acid is a lysine synthetic derivative antifibrinolytic drug, its chemical structure is partially similar to that of tyrosine, and it can competitively bind to the substrate (tyrosine) binding site of tyrosinase It interferes with the catalytic effect of tyrosinase on tyrosine metabolism, and finally inhibits melanin synthesis. Plasmin plays an important role in the transformation of extracellular matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor into free form to promote the formation of new blood vessels, and tranexamic acid is a plasmin inhibitor, so it can inhibit the formation of new blood vessels, reduce erythema and microvascular quantity. Mast cells promote the formation of new blood vessels through the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, and tranexamic acid can reduce the number of mast cells and inhibit the activity of mast cells, adding a layer of blessing to the redness and blackness suppression effect.
The reduced glutathione molecule contains a sulfhydryl group, which inactivates the enzyme by combining with copper ions in tyrosinase, inhibits the proliferation of melanocytes, and reduces the formation of melanin. The active sulfhydryl group in reduced glutathione has a strong affinity with free radicals, which can effectively remove oxygen free radicals and superoxide ions in the human body, resist oxidation, protect cell membranes from oxidative damage, and prevent red blood cell hemolysis. Localized brown pigmentation.
Microneedle introduction therapy penetrates the skin through microneedle tips, forming a large number of fine pores, promoting the percutaneous absorption of drugs, penetrating the epidermis and superficial dermis, while local injection is similar to water light, and is directly administered to the dermis. The combination of the two administration methods enables the components for treating tranexamic acid and glutathione to quickly reach the lesion site, play a role, and achieve good curative effect. It can be used clinically as a safe and effective treatment plan.