Glutathione is a tripeptide compound contained in all living cells. It is an important intermediate substance in biological metabolism. It mainly defends against DNA damage. Glutathione has two forms: reduced and oxidized. The oxidized form is its reduced form. the link of the disulfide bond.
Animal blood, liver, yeast and grain germ are rich in glutathione, and its content is as high as 100-200mg/100g. Human blood also contains more glutathione, while the content of glutathione in plant tissue relatively low.
As an important biologically active substance in the body, glutathione has physiological functions such as anti-aging, anti-oxidation, anti-allergy, alleviation of fatigue and prevention of diabetes. At present, it is mainly used in many fields such as food, medicine, health care products and cosmetics. In the future, it will also have huge development potential in the field of biological fertilizers and feed additives.
In the 1920s, glutathione has been studied abroad, and it has been widely used in various fields of food processing. The application of glutathione in food in my country is mainly used to inhibit browning, prolong food storage period, and increase food flavor.
Appropriate addition of glutathione to meat and seafood can effectively inhibit the decomposition of nucleic acid, enhance flavor, and prolong the shelf life of food. Lv Fei et al. explored the effect of glutathione combined with mixed gas on the storage quality of chilled beef. The results showed that when glutathione and mixed gas were combined with chilled beef, the total number of colonies was only higher than 6.00lg (CFU/kg) on the 13th day. g), significantly better than the control group, effectively reducing the total number of initial bacterial colonies of beef, inhibiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, improving the quality of beef, and helping to prolong its shelf life. Shen Kejing's research found that the total number of colonies, volatile base nitrogen (TVBN) and redness value a* of beef co-treated with glutathione and CO, O3 gas mixture during refrigeration were significantly better than those of the mixed gas group. Effectively extend the shelf life of the product.
In addition, studies have shown that glutathione, as a feed additive, can effectively promote the growth of livestock and poultry such as broilers and piglets. Song Zengting et al. used mutton sheep as experimental animals and found that glutathione can significantly increase the daily weight gain of mutton sheep, effectively promote the growth of mutton sheep, and at the same time improve the feed conversion rate, enhance the tenderness and water retention of mutton, and improve the quality of meat.
Glutathione promotes the growth and development of seafood fish by increasing the digestive enzyme activity of fish, promoting the secretion of growth hormone and improving protein synthesis. Zhou Yanling found that the specific growth rate of each experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, and the crude protein content of the whole fish was significantly higher than that of the control group. were also higher than the control group. Li Xiaomei found that adding an appropriate amount of glutathione had no toxicity or side effects on the health of turbot, and at the same time, it could promote the growth of turbot, increase its protein content, and enhance the anti-oxidative stress ability of turbot.
Browning is one of the important problems in the process of wine production and storage, which will affect the color, flavor, nutrition and other qualities of wine. Glutathione, as a natural non-toxic and antioxidant active substance, is widely used in the wine industry.
Xu Jingran et al. took apple cider as the research object, and screened the cider yeast Y-18 strain with high glutathione production. The study showed that the effect of glutathione on inhibiting browning was better than that of ascorbic acid and L-cysteine, and The high glutathione-producing strain Y-18 can maintain good fermentation characteristics while reducing the browning value of fruit wine.
In addition, glutathione also plays a protective role on the aroma components of wine. Qi Yiman and other studies have shown that adding an appropriate amount of glutathione can better maintain the characteristic aroma components of fruit wine, which is beneficial to prolong the storage period of kiwifruit wine.
Application in condiments Glutathione can also be used in food as a flavoring agent. Studies have found that glutathione is mixed with L-glutamate, cystine and xylose to produce a unique beef flavor; and glutathione and flavor nucleotides such as inosinic acid, guanosine After the acid and sodium glutamate are mixed, it will form a strong meat flavor, which can be used as a flavoring agent and flavoring agent in the processing of various foods. Zhou Xiuqin's research found that the high glutathione yeast extract produced by high glutathione yeast can not only be used for food seasoning, but also has the functions of scavenging free radicals and detoxification in the body.
In addition, glutathione has a certain taste-enhancing effect.
By exploring the effect of glutathione on the taste enhancement of inorganic salts, Bi Jicai and others found that glutathione and NaCl can achieve the best taste enhancement effect at 40 ° C and pH 7.0, and the system of glutathione and inorganic salts can achieve the best taste enhancement effect. The taste is also the most abundant. Huang Wenlei and other studies found that glutathione has a certain enhancement effect on bitterness, prolongs the retention of bitterness, and can increase the bitterness effect of food, providing a scientific basis for in-depth research on food flavor.
In the processing of fruits and vegetables, adding an appropriate amount of glutathione can effectively prevent browning and maintain the original attractive color, flavor and nutritional value. Wu studied the effect of glutathione on the browning of Fuji apples during processing and storage, and found that glutathione can significantly inhibit the activity of polyphenol oxidase, effectively reducing the browning of apples during juicing and storage. The organoleptic quality of apple juice is maintained and its shelf life is extended. Zhang Jin et al found that the combined use of glutathione and ascorbic acid can effectively prevent browning of fresh-cut apples, and the combined effect is significantly better than that of ascorbic acid alone.
The content of glutathione in flour products is low, and most of them are lost after processing and cooking. However, in the process of its processing, adding an appropriate amount of glutathione can not only effectively improve the rheological properties of the dough, control the strength and viscosity of the dough, but also shorten the kneading time and drying time of the noodle products; Glutathione also acts as an inhibitor of tyrosinase, preventing undesirable color changes.
In addition, the appropriate addition of glutathione to dairy products can enhance its pleasant flavor and effectively improve the quality of dairy products; adding glutathione to yogurt production can stabilize the quality. It is proved that glutathione and transglutaminase can improve the rheological properties of yogurt.
With glutathione as the functional active factor, it can also be made into other different types of functional foods, such as beverages, hobby products (candy, etc.), dairy products, pasta foods, fermented foods and specially designed for some special groups (such as pregnant women, Oral health care products designed for infants and patients, etc.
Glutathione has a very important physiological function. Foreign countries began to study it as early as the 1920s and 1930s. Japan and other countries also began to study its application in food in the 1950s. Now it has been obtained in various fields of food processing. Wide range of applications.