NMN, as a vitamin B3 precursor compound, has been widely studied for its relationship with anti-inflammatory effects.
1. NMN reverses the characteristics of inflammatory metabolites
Macrophage NAD+ levels decline during inflammation, but NMN supplementation restores NAD+. The figure shows NAD+ in healthy macrophages (blue boxes), inflammatory macrophages (red boxes), macrophages treated with NMN only (gray boxes) and inflammatory macrophages treated with NMN (black boxes) level. Inflammation can significantly reduce NAD+ levels, but treatment with NMN can restore NAD+. After confirming that NMN did indeed increase NAD+ levels in macrophages, the team went on to show that NMN antagonizes changes in the levels of metabolites associated with inflammation. In other words, it partially reversed the metabolite changes caused by inflammation. These findings suggest that NMN supplementation can suppress inflammation.
2. NMN restores the level of inflammation-related proteins
Levels of all measured inflammation-related proteins were reduced by NMN treatment, further supporting that NMN attenuates the inflammatory state of macrophages.
Supplementing NMN to macrophages with inflammation reduced levels of inflammatory proteins, including COX-2. The graph depicts proteins represented by dots that were either reduced (blue), remained constant (black), or increased (red) following NMN treatment as macrophage inflammation occurred. Perhaps most interesting was the reduction in the COX-2 inflammatory protein, a known target of NSAIDs such as aspirin and ibuprofen. NMN has shown NSAID-like effects by reducing COX-2 levels.
3. NMN inhibits the accumulation of NSAID target proteins
NMN inhibits the inflammatory response by targeting COX-2, thereby inhibiting the accumulation of various inflammation-related proteins. NMN inhibits the accumulation of COX-2 and thus inhibits the accumulation of inflammation-related proteins such as prostaglandin 2 (PGE2). By interfering with the accumulation of these proteins, NMN suppressed the inflammatory response of macrophages.
COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain, is also a known NSAID target. By inhibiting COX-2 levels, NMN can reproduce some of the molecular activities of NSAIDs without adverse side effects.
In addition, NMN can also enhance the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the body and reduce the production of oxygen free radicals, thereby reducing the damage to the body caused by oxidative stress.