A series of energy synthesis and metabolism are going on in the human body all the time to ensure the balance and health of life activities. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+), as a coenzyme in the redox reaction process, is an important molecule responsible for energy metabolism. NAD+ directly or indirectly regulates many important cellular functions, including intramitochondrial energy synthesis, DNA damage repair, chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and immune cell function. The fundamental physiological processes and functions of these cells are critical for maintaining tissue, metabolic homeostasis, and healthy aging.
Aging is a natural process. As we age, NAD+ levels are gradually depleted in the human body, leading to a downregulation of mitochondrial energy synthesis in various organs, including the brain, adipose tissue, skin, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. Decreased NAD+ levels are causally linked to age-related diseases such as cognitive decline, cancer, metabolic disease, sarcopenia, and frailty. Therefore, targeting NAD+ metabolic pathways to increase NAD+ levels may be a potential means to improve aging-related diseases and extend human lifespan and healthspan.
▲Reasons for the reduction of NAD+ in the body during aging
There are three NAD+ synthesis pathways in mammalian cells, namely tryptophan de novo synthesis pathway, salvage pathway and Preiss-Handler pathway, among which the salvage pathway is the most effective main synthesis pathway. Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) is an intermediate in the second pathway and participates in the latter two synthetic pathways.
▲Pathway of NMN participating in NAD+ synthesis in mammalian cells
As the world ages, there is an increasing demand for anti-aging supplements that can prolong life and delay the onset of age-related diseases. In recent years, NMN has attracted great attention from the scientific community and consumers. In theory, NMN, as a precursor for the synthesis of NAD+, slows down the process of NAD+ depletion with age by increasing the level of NAD+ in the body, so it can be used as an anti-aging health product.
▲The mechanism of NMN anti-aging
Mitochondrial decay causes aging, and increased NAD+ levels in the body can reverse mitochondrial decay. The scientific community has carried out extensive research on the anti-aging activity of NMN through cell experiments, animal models and clinical trials. There is evidence that NMN can produce beneficial effects in rodent models and human levels, such as protecting endothelial cells, improving blood supply; improving metabolic dysfunction; and protecting the nervous system.
*Special note - This article is for informational purposes only and cannot replace a doctor's treatment diagnosis and advice. It should not be regarded as a recommendation or proof of efficacy of the medical products involved. If it involves disease diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, please be sure to go to a professional medical institution to seek professional advice.