At present, glutathione has been widely used in the fields of medicine, food and cosmetics, and its application in the field of animal health is still in its infancy, with a good market prospect.
GSH synthesis is regulated by its own feedback inhibition of r-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The liver is the main site for the synthesis of GSH in the body. Since r-glutamyl transpeptidase (r-GT) activity is lower in pig kidney compared with r-GT in liver, the liver and bile duct branches play an important role in GSH turnover in pigs.
There have been many reports on the effects of glutathione on the growth performance of poultry and livestock. Glutathione can regulate the expression of growth axis-related hormones, genes and receptors in the body, thereby affecting growth performance. Adding an appropriate amount of glutathione to the diet can promote the growth of mutton sheep and improve the growth performance and feed conversion rate of fattening sheep. As a physiologically active substance, glutathione can improve the growth performance of poultry and livestock by adding it in an appropriate amount.
Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors in poultry farming worldwide, severely reducing feed intake, growth rate, mortality, egg production, hatchability and other production performance. A large number of free radicals are easily generated in poultry under heat stress conditions. Excessive free radicals lead to an imbalance in oxidation and antioxidant defense systems, resulting in lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to proteins, DNA and other biomolecules. In production, appropriate addition of selenium, amino acids and vitamins has positive effects on the growth performance, anti-stress and immune functions of poultry and livestock. The antioxidant effect of selenium on the body is realized through the content of glutathione and the activity of glutathione-related enzymes.
Glutathione peroxidase can catalyze the conversion of reduced glutathione into oxidized glutathione. As a cofactor of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione can assist GSH-Px to catalyze the reduction of toxic of oxides. GSH-Px belongs to the first and second levels of the antioxidant network, and is involved in the regulation of many important cellular pathways, including maintaining redox balance and signal transduction. Different forms play an antioxidant protective role in different parts of the body. The most important antioxidant defense mechanism. Increasing the content of GSH-Px and glutathione in poultry can alleviate oxidative stress and reduce the economic loss of breeding production.