Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide containing γ-amide bonds and sulfhydryl groups. It is composed of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine and is present in almost every cell of the body.
The sulfhydryl group on cysteine is easily combined with certain drugs (such as paracetamol), toxins (such as free radicals, iodoacetic acid, mustard gas, heavy metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, etc.), and has an integrated detoxification effect. Therefore, glutathione (especially glutathione in liver cells) can participate in biotransformation, thereby converting harmful poisons in the body into harmless substances and excreted from the body. Glutathione also helps maintain normal immune system function.
Reduced glutathione (γ-glutamyl-cysteine-glycine; GSH) not only fascinates animal scientists but plant scientists also maintain a keen interest in the dynamic relationship between GSH and reactive oxygen species (ROS). , which is the basis of redox regulation and signaling. Because of the purity of botanical molecular signals, studies have clarified the respective roles of ROS and GSH in plant growth regulation, and found that GSH is a molecule with a small molecular weight that can flexibly regulate genetic and epigenetic functions.
Glutathione widely exists in animals and plants, in baker's yeast, wheat germ (wheat germ is the core and life of wheat, the plant is called the embryo, which is equivalent to the placenta of animals. Although it only accounts for 2% of the weight of the wheat grain, But the nutrition accounts for 97% of the whole wheat grain) and the content in animal liver is very high, reaching 100 ~ 1000 mg/100g, in human blood it contains 26 ~ 34 mg/100g, and in chicken blood it contains 58 ~ 73 mg/100g , pig blood contains 10 ~ 15 mg/100g, and the content in tomatoes, pineapples, and cucumbers is also high (12 ~ 33 mg/100g). Of course, taking glutathione supplements every day can effectively increase the amount of glutathione stored in the body. Studies have proven that glutathione supplements are twice as toxic to natural killer cells as the placebo group.
In a clinical trial of glutathione supplementation for the intervention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease completed in Japan, after 4 months, 34 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (2 people dropped out at the beginning, and 3 patients dropped out midway due to fatigue, elevated blood pressure, and rash), oral L-glutathione (300 mg/day; KOHJIN Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, US FDA GRAS) #GRN000293) was administered in groups, and finally, 29 patients (14 males, 15 females, mean age 56.0±13.3 years) completed the study protocol. Among them, 24 patients (82.8%) were patients with dyslipidemia, and 12 patients (41.4%) were taking statins. Drugs, 14 cases (48.3%) had diabetes.
Note: BMI, FBS fasting blood glucose, IRI immune response insulin, HBA1c glycosylated hemoglobin, HDLcholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDLcholesterol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Triglycerides triglycerides, NEFA non-esterified fatty acid AST aspartate Acid aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, CAP controlled attenuation parameters, LSM liver stiffness measurement
After 4 months, alanine aminotransferase levels decreased significantly. Glutathione has also been shown to reduce the concentration of triglycerides, NEFA and ferritin. However, glycosylated hemoglobin levels increased after glutathione treatment. Although glutathione treatment had no significant effect on CAP and LSM values, they both tended to decrease. This reminds us that it is very difficult to solve metabolic diseases by relying solely on one molecule. If it can be combined with a low-carbohydrate diet, better results may be achieved.