Pyrroloquinoline Quinone (PQQ) is a coenzyme that plays an important role in redox and is one of the "star" nutrients that has attracted much attention in recent years. The main role of PQQ in mitochondria is to promote the metabolic function of mitochondria, thereby increasing cell energy production, protecting cells from oxidative stress damage, and playing an important role in delaying aging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotection.
The mechanism of action of PQQ in mitochondria:
1. Promote the function of mitochondrial respiratory chain: There are respiratory chain complexes in mitochondria, among which complexes I, III, IV, and V are key enzymes in the oxidative phosphorylation process. By binding to complexes I and III, PQQ enhances its catalytic effect, making the process in the mitochondrial electron transport chain more efficient, thereby enhancing the mitochondrial ATP synthesis capacity.
2. Regulate mitochondrial membrane potential and calcium ion concentration: Mitochondrial inner membrane potential and calcium ion concentration are two major activity indicators of mitochondria and are also key elements in the oxidative phosphorylation process. PQQ can regulate the mitochondrial inner membrane potential and calcium ion concentration, thus promoting the normal work of mitochondria.
3. Reduce oxidative stress: Oxidative stress refers to the process in which oxygen free radicals or other oxidatively active substances generated in cells continuously attack the structure and function of cells, causing cell damage. As an antioxidant, PQQ can directly scavenge oxygen free radicals and initiate the redox process in mitochondria, further protecting mitochondria from oxidative stress damage.
A review article published in the journal Front Mol Biosci summarized 5 animal studies and 2 cell studies, and the results showed that PQQ can reduce body fat, especially visceral and liver fat accumulation, thereby preventing dietary obesity. From a principle analysis, PQQ mainly inhibits lipogenesis and reduces fat accumulation by improving mitochondrial function and promoting lipid metabolism.
▲PQQ reduces fat accumulation by inhibiting fatty acid synthesis (lipogenesis) and improving mitochondrial function
Source | frontiersin.org
Reference: Mohamad Ishak NS, Ikemoto K. Pyrroloquinoline-quinone to reduce fat accumulation and ameliorate obesity progression. Front Mol Biosci. 2023 May 5;10:1200025. doi: 10.3389/fmolb.2023.1200025. PMID: 37214340; PMCID: PMC10196175.
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