Glutathione is an effective whitening ingredient that can participate in a variety of biological transformations, scavenge free radicals, resist oxidation, whiten skin, fade spots, and has anti-aging effects.
Melanin is the main determinant of dark yellow skin and spots. The melanin content of the skin depends on:
1. Number of melanocytes
Long-term exposure of the skin to light causes the number of melanocytes to triple.
2. Expression and function of enzymes and structural proteins in melanosomes
Melanosomes are the only organelles that synthesize and deposit melanin in eukaryotic cells. The nascent melanosomes gather in the perinuclear region near the Golgi stack and receive all the enzymes and structural proteins required for melanin production.
3. The amount of synthesized eumelanin and pheomelanin
Eumelanin and pheomelanin differ in their chemical, color, and physical properties. The former mainly exists in dark-skinned skin, and the latter mainly exists in light-skinned skin. The ratio of the two determines the degree of skin melanization.
4. Transport of melanosomes to dendrites
Mature melanosomes move along microtubules from the perinuclear region to dendrites under the action of kinesin and dynein.
5. Transfer of melanosomes to keratinocytes
Melanin produced by melanosomes can be transported to the surroundings through the dendrites of melanocytes and enter keratinocytes, ultimately forming the color of the epidermis.
6. Distribution and degradation of melanin in the upper layer of the skin base
The redistribution and degradation capabilities of melanosomes are related to the degree of skin melanization.
Glutathione is a short peptide composed of three amino acids: glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It exists in a reduced form in the body. It has a broad-spectrum detoxification effect and can combat various harmful substances. Toxins include toxic compounds, heavy metal ions, and carcinogens that combine to form non-toxic substances.
Glutathione is also the main antioxidant in human cells. It can reduce melanin synthesis by inhibiting tyrosinase activity. Research shows that glutathione inhibits tyrosinase activity by up to 85%. Glutathione can effectively inhibit melanin synthesis or reduce melanin, prevent melanin precipitation, and inhibit spots and dark skin color.