Whether indoors or outdoors, we may be surrounded by particulate matter (PM). These tiny particles invisible to the naked eye are not only dangerous to inhale, but can also cause skin aging. According to the "International Journal of Molecular Sciences", some researchers used NMN and Coenzyme Q10 to protect skin cells from PM-induced skin aging. The results show that human skin cells exposed to PM increase ROS and senescent cell levels; while NMN combined with coenzyme Q10 can reduce ROS and senescent cell levels. The researchers also showed that NMN and CoQ10 reduced inflammatory markers and increased sirtuin 1, an enzyme associated with longevity.
NMN relieves skin aging caused by particulate matter
To study the effects of NMN and CoQ10 on PM-induced skin aging, the researchers exposed human skin cells to PM and then treated them with NMN and CoQ10. ROS levels were found to be increased in skin cells exposed to PM, and ROS molecules can cause damage to cells. Treating PM-exposed skin cells with NMN reduced ROS levels, suggesting that NMN reduces oxidative stress—the damage to cells caused by ROS.
(Chang et al., 2022 | Int. J. Mol. Sci.) NMN reduces particulate matter-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Human skin cells exposed to PM (PCM) have higher levels of ROS (measured by DCFH-DA fluorescence) than unexposed (control) skin cells. These ROS were reduced by NMN but not by Q10.
As we age, our cells encounter cellular stressors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage. Cellular stress can cause our cells to enter a state of senescence, where affected cells no longer divide and instead promote inflammation, leading to age-related diseases. When researchers exposed human skin cells to PM, they saw an increase in senescent cells. By treating skin cells with NMN and CoQ10, the number of senescent cells is reduced.
(Chang et al., 2022 | Int. J. Mol. Sci.) NMN reduces particulate matter-induced senescent cells. Human skin cells exposed to PM (PCM) have more senescent cells (measured as beta-gal) than unexposed (control) skin cells. These senescent cells are reduced by NMN and Q10.
Examination of PM-exposed skin cells showed elevated levels of inflammatory markers, which the researchers showed were counteracted by both NMN and CoQ10 treatments. Furthermore, the longevity-related enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was inhibited in PM-exposed skin cells. However, NMN and CoQ10 restored this important DNA repair enzyme. These findings suggest that NMN and CoQ10 may protect skin from PM-induced inflammation and potential DNA damage. Additionally, NMN shows stronger effects compared to Coenzyme Q10.