Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide compound formed by the condensation of L-cysteine, γ-L-glutamic acid and glycine through peptide bonds. It has two kinds of γ-glutamyl and sulfhydryl groups. active group. Glutathione has two forms: oxidized form (GSSG) and reduced form (GSH). The reduced form is commonly used. Glutathione was discovered in 1921 by Nobel Prize winner and President of the Royal Society Hopkins.
Glutathione is widely distributed in animal, plant and microbial cells. As an important bioactive substance in the body, glutathione has physiological effects such as delaying aging, antioxidant, anti-allergy, reducing fatigue and preventing diabetes.
So what are the antioxidant capabilities of glutathione?
The human body produces a large amount of free radicals every day, and environmental factors also promote the production of free radicals in the human body. Excessive free radicals can oxidize normal substances in the human body, destroy cell structures, and promote malignant transformation of cells.
The sulfhydryl group (-SH) of glutathione can be oxidized into -S-S- bonds, thereby generating cross-linked disulfide bonds in protein molecules. The -S-S- bonds can also be easily converted into sulfhydryl groups by reduction, showing the oxidation and Reversibility of reduction. Of the two configurations, the reduced form plays a greater role. Reduced glutathione can reduce the -S-S- bond in biological enzymes to -SH, thereby restoring or improving their activity.
Two molecules of GSH can be oxidized into one molecule of GSSG (oxidized glutathione) under the action of glutathione peroxidase GPX, and at the same time neutralize the free radical H2O2 to form harmless water and oxygen molecules, thus protecting the cell membrane Its structure and function are protected from interference and damage by peroxides. GSSG is reduced to GSH under the action of glutathione reductase, and at the same time, the hydrogen transmitter NADPH is oxidized to NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleoside phosphate), thereby forming a redox cycle to avoid oxidative damage.
*Special note - This article is for informational purposes only and cannot replace a doctor's treatment diagnosis and advice. It should not be regarded as a recommendation or proof of efficacy of the medical products involved. If it involves disease diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, please be sure to go to a professional medical institution to seek professional advice.